Double Deviance Thesis
Gender Bias and Punishment - History Learning Site
Double Deviance Thesis
The word strange is used in the in a quotation describing one of knoxs alleged sexual partners (lawton, 2007 hale & pisa, 2007 churcher, 2007). These claims are noted in a number of contemporary works (grabe et al. As such, its aim is to examine whether the medias portrayal of knox conforms to pre-existing notions of the female perpetrator.
Firstly it will examine how the print media portrays amanda knoxs role in the murder of meredith kercher. In particular, naylors (2001, 189) work provides an interesting historical context for the double deviance theory, situating anxieties on female criminality and deviance in discourses on changes in female roles in the 1980s and 1990s. Knoxs deviant sexuality, which culminates in her portrayal as a bad woman, is also communicated through the portrayal of the two male suspects as passive and helpless.
Women are supposed to nurture and protect, not to kill (berrington & honkatukia, 2002, 58). The hypothesis suggests that female offenders were preferentially treated in a criminal justice system because they are viewed through their stereotypical weakness and irrationality (jeffries, 2001, 2 pollak, 1950). As a key feminist criminologist, hiedensohns place in the literature on criminology and gender is further established through this inclusive, critical text.
This indicates why discourses on sexuality, femininity and deviance are so readily employed when constructing a narrative on knoxs offenses, because these topics are still relatively unexplained and confusing to the public (wykes and welsh, 2009). This description is furthered by van dijk (2001, 352) who states that cda studies the way social power abuse, dominance and inequality are enacted, reproduced, and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context. Heidensohn (1985, 119) argues that pollak put forward a view of women as inherently deceitful and vengeful, exploiting a flow of helpless victims and aided by mens besotted chivalry.
This underrepresentation is attributed to a number of factors, including the ability for women to more easily conceal their crimes and the tendency of the criminal justice system to treat women less harshly due to preconceived notions of femininity. Drawing on a nickname taken from knoxs own myspace page, each article refers to knox as foxy knoxy (mansey, 2007 lawton, 2007 hale & pisa, 2007 parry, 2007 churcher, 2007). This study has attempted to examine representations of amanda knox as a female offender, insofar as her portrayal has conformed to discourses of representation specific to deviant women that appear beyond, between or beneath the condemnation of the crime itself (wykes, 1995, 52).
The study is significant because of the lack of prior research into media depictions of gender in crime that came before it. The consequences of this representation must be considered. It is also argued that what constitutes newsworthiness is in itself a reflection of contemporary attitudes and concerns about gender and crime (naylor, 2001, 188). It was soon revealed that kercher had been murdered in her home, which she shared with amanda knox, an american exchange student at the time (associated press, 2011). However, the aforementioned lexical choices connoting overt, unabashed sexual behaviour and discourses on promiscuity, lend legitimacy to the claims made by the articles.
Gender Bias and Punishment - History Learning Site
25 May 2015 ... An alternate theory is the double deviance theory. This argument states that women are treated more harshly by the criminal justice system. This is because they are guilty of being doubly deviant. ... After arrest, women are more likely than men to be cautioned rather than charged.
Double Deviance Thesis
Double Deviance and the Bad Woman | Georga Mankarious
22 Jul 2013 ... Feminist criminologists point towards a double deviance theory, which argues that female offenders are punished not only for the crime they commit, but also for their deviance from gender expectations and norms. Drawing on this, it is suggested that female offenders are labeled as either 'mad' or 'bad'.
Double Deviance Thesis
Shiner, After arrest.
and . Though original, the work has been widely criticized for its focus on what pollak perceives as womens inherent deceitfulness, which, it has been argued, is empirically unsupportable.
The offers an account of knoxs sexually aggressive behaviour (churcher, 2007), In keeping with the purpose of critical discourse analysis.
Humphries (2009) states that often the media dictates that women with a certain sexual history are less worthy of fair treatment. Frigon (1995) offers one of the few criticisms of the dichotomy and indicates, confining the explanations to the madbad dichotomy bypasses the possibility of seeing womens powerlessness andlocates the problem at an individual level.
On a wider level, The label defines and restricts how readers understand knoxs personality.
This is representative of how in the tabloids women can take on something like a celebrity status (naylor, 1995, Killer had 6 men on go she bragged of hot romps.
The work forged new ground, in part, In comparison, knox is described as a normal girl on the surfacebut wild underneath (mansey, 2007).
Gender and Justice - ResearchGate
The analyzed newspapers articulate the margins for appropriate and inappropriate sexual behaviour. The negative quotations against knox and the humanization of kerchers friend enhance the portrayal of knox as abnormal and different. Consequently, knoxs sexualized image becomes commonplace, familiar, and recognizable and this is perpetuated by each reference. The overall narrative of the article, describing how knox was proud to have been the one who found kerchers body, enhances this depiction (parry, 2007). Indeed, the critical approach to discourse analysis contends that news language contributes to inequality and often operates within conventions that are in the dominant groups interests (matheson, 2005, 17).
Similarly, naylor (1995, 79) argues that by selecting and then explaining problematic eventsthe media play a powerful role both in defining what the consensus is, and then in identifying the nature of deviation. Nevertheless, this issue remains a crucial element to understanding female offenders in particular. Whilst this reading is perhaps dated insofar as the concept of victorian morality is far removed from contemporary ideals, jewkes (2004, 108) argues that modern day discourses on female deviance remain curiously embedded in the victorian age. Women are supposed to nurture and protect, not to kill (berrington & honkatukia, 2002, 58). Knox, simply by being female, therefore attracts a large amount of attention for her role in the violent crime.
Meyer, 2009, critical discourse analysis history, agenda, theory and methodology, in wykes, m. The emphasis on forensic jargon, such as dna, lends credibility to the portrayal of knoxs involvement (mansey, 2007). This is supported by grabe et al. As the chosen unit of analysis for this investigation is tabloid news articles, it is also important to consider the use of cda in understanding news discourses. The nature of the offense itself, described as a sexual crime, further implicates knox as a dangerous sexual being. The states that knox pushed so hard on kerchers face that she left an imprint of her fingers on her skin (hale & pisa, 2007). Stories about knoxs inability to flush the toilet and signing at a restaurant build a framework through which her deviance is explained. This newsworthiness by way of gender is enhanced because of the aforementioned structures that female violence shatters. The study therefore sheds more light on the construction of female offenders in the media, through the critical discourse analysis of a specific case study. The study is significant because of the lack of prior research into media depictions of gender in crime that came before it.chivalry, stigma and double deviance – retain some of their power too. Worrall
...... Thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science. Shiner, M. and ...
Level 12 - A2 Sociology- Crime and Dev... - MemriseCovers the whole of the AQA Unit 4 topic of Crime and Deviance. ... First
proposed then chivalry thesis which suggests women are seen as less guilty by
the ... This sociologist's study of shoplifting witnessed twice as many males
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Gilbert (2002, 1282) argues that this is, in part, why female offenders are labeled as either mad or bad. In order to do so, the article contends, knox played sports and engaged in physical activity. Who kill their children case study and conclusions concerning the differences in the fall from maternal grace by khoua and andrea yates, d. The analyzed articles build a portrayal of knox as impulsive, aggressive and opinionated. Thus, the victim, kercher, is depicted as a morally and socially acceptable figure, whose character is in keeping with prescribed gender roles.
The article suggests that kercher and knox fought because knox did not flush the toilet and because at once at restaurant, knox all of a sudden got up and started singing at the top of her voice (parry, 2007) Buy now Double Deviance Thesis
Frigon utilizes political developments and a number of important cases throughout history to underscore these arguments. That knox falls short of maintaining these traits is evident in the results. It has been asserted that violence committed by women is particularly newsworthy due to its rarity, which significantly heightens both its shock and entertainment value (berrington and honkatukia, 2002, , 109). The murder of meredith kercher and subsequent trial created a media storm that primarily surrounded knox, who was quickly linked to the crime and became the major focus of media coverage on the case although the crime itself occurred almost 5 years ago, the trial, conviction, appeal and following acquittal of amanda knox attracted huge media attention and still do to this day Double Deviance Thesis Buy now
The analyzed articles also make references to knoxs then boyfriend, raffaele sollecito and patrick diya lumumba, who at the time was also both accused of participating in the murder of kercher. In particular, weatherby, blanche & jones (2008) agree that it is common for the media to attempt to explain the reasons for female criminality. Humphries (2009) states that often the media dictates that women with a certain sexual history are less worthy of fair treatment. Cardiff university of wales press frigon, a prominent figure is studies on female criminology, offers a comprehensive review of notions of madness and deviance in femininity. Knox, simply by being female, therefore attracts a large amount of attention for her role in the violent crime Buy Double Deviance Thesis at a discount
The word strange is used in the in a quotation describing one of knoxs alleged sexual partners (lawton, 2007 hale & pisa, 2007 churcher, 2007). Indeed, it indicates that female offenders are criticized harshly for deviating from socially accepted gender expectations of women. The headline, meredith killer has 6 men on go, underscores a discourse of promiscuity and unconventional, or polygamous, sexual relationships. Paltridge (2006, 179) offers a simplistic framework for conducting cda, which involves a detailed textual analysis, examining linguistic features followed by an explanation and interpretation of the analysis. As such, the articles discuss her sexual partners and her sexual aggressiveness Buy Online Double Deviance Thesis
It is through these issues that representations of knox correspond to theories on the female offender as a double deviant and as a bad woman. Nevertheless, this study offers a valuable analysis of the media portrayal of amanda knox, which further underscores the role of gender in constructing and perpetuating common images of female offenders. Knoxs story is particularly shocking because it challenges the dominant discourses on female behaviour and consequently deviates from normal expectations (naylor, 1995, 80). This newsworthiness by way of gender is enhanced because of the aforementioned structures that female violence shatters. The article draws on this comparison strategy to further indicate knoxs differences Double Deviance Thesis For Sale
The authors conduct a content analysis of font page newspaper stories from the los angeles times and new york times, all from 2006. Check the boxes below to ignoreunignore words, then click save at the bottom. This is supported by grabe et al. The study found that, in keeping with the established literature on feminist criminology, knox was portrayed as a sexual deviant, who at once deviated from the law and socially acceptable boundaries of femininity. She argues that masculinity is an accomplishment - something that men have to constantly work at constructing and presenting to others.
Paltridge (2006, 179) offers a simplistic framework for conducting cda, which involves a detailed textual analysis, examining linguistic features followed by an explanation and interpretation of the analysis For Sale Double Deviance Thesis
Seal (2010, 3) offers a comprehensive critique of femininity, women and murder, particularly in reference to female offenders and argues that it is important that feminist scholars do turn their attention to a wider range of cases. Brennan & vandenberg (2009) offer a useful summary of how these explanations are identified in early literature. Misogyny demonizing violent girls and women, in churcher, s. The article offers explicitly negative judgment of knox that creates a narrative of guilt through which the reader understands knoxs behaviour. Based primarily on pollaks interpretive analysis of global crime statistics, the work puts forth the argument that womens crime is underrepresented in statistics Sale Double Deviance Thesis
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